LSNA Technology Library

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  • October 2009 - 17th EuMW
    Rome, Italy
    On-Wafer LSNA Measurements Including Dynamic-Bias
    Gustavo Avolio, Guillaume Pailloncy, Dominique Schreurs, Marc Vanden Bossche, and Bart Nauwelaers
    A novel set-up extending Large Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA) capabilities is described in this work. The new set-up allows the simultaneous on-wafer measurement of highfrequency response (600 MHz-50 GHz) and currents/voltages induced at low-frequency scale (10 kHz-24 MHz) when the nonlinear DUT is excited by a periodic modulated signal. Experiments carried out on FinFET devices are reported. It will be shown that, in certain conditions, the contribution of low-frequency information cannot be disregarded as it causes a significant discrepancy to appear in the current/voltage at the DUT terminals.
    Presentation: (pdf - 600 KB)
  • December 2008 - 72nd ARFTG
    Portland, Oregon, USA
    Simultaneous measurement of high and low frequency response of non-linear microwave circuits
    Gustavo Avolio, Guillaume Pailloncy, Dominique Schreurs, Marc Vanden Bossche, and Bart Nauwelaers
    In this work, measurements of the high frequency as well as the low frequency response of a non-linear microwave circuit are reported. The developed set-up is based on an extension of the LSNA and it enables the simultaneous measurement of baseband response and RF behaviour. Thanks to this capability a direct correlation between the variation of baseband impedance and asymmetry of distortion components around the fundamental carrier is possible. Experimental results of two-tone measurements, carried out on a hybrid GaAs microwave circuit, are shown.
    Poster: (pdf - 638 KB)
  • November 2008 - InMMIC Workshop
    Málaga, Spain
    Complete characterisation of LF and RF dynamics at device terminals within microwave circuits
    Gustavo Avolio, Dominique Schreurs, Bart Nauwelaers, Guillaume Pailloncy, and Marc Vanden Bossche
    This work presents a way to determine the complete response, encompassing both the low- and high-frequency components, at the device terminals within a microwave circuit. The measurement set-up is based on an extension of the large-signal network analyser. Experimental results on a GaAs power amplifier are analysed.
    Presentation: (pdf - 980 KB)
  • December 2008 - MOS-AK Meeting
    San Francisco, USA
    Using Large-Signal Measurements for Transistor Characterization and Model Verification in a Device Modeling Program.
    Maciej Myslinski (K.U.Leuven), Giovanni Crupi (Univ. of Messina), Marc Vanden Bossche (NMDG), Dominique Schreurs (K.U.Leuven), Bart Nauwelaers (K.U.Leuven)
    The trend in microwave industry to deliver more for less leads to new semiconductor technologies, increasing level of integration and complexity of the circuits, as well as shorter time-to-market of the designed components. To support these evolutions, there has been a growing need not only for for more advanced characterization techniques but also for more accurate and reliable device models.
    Large-Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA), also known as Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA), measurements provide complete information about the behavior of the measured device under realistic microwave signal conditions. On the other hand, the available semiconductor device model extraction software tools offer an integral platform to process, visualize, analyze various measurement data, and to apply them for the modeling purposes. Unfortunately, these programs, despite their constant development, do not benefit from the large-signal measurement capability.
    In this work we extend the functionality of one of such software tools, namely IC-CAP, to work also with the large-signal measurements. The LSNA-measured data are incorporated into the software environment and after simple processing are provided to the user in frequency-, time- and power domains.
    The application of these data to the transistor characterization and the model verification is demonstrated on the example of a MOSFET device and its Angelov model, respectively.
    Presentation: slides+notes (pdf - 2.3MB) - slides only (pdf - 2.2MB)
  • October 2007 - TC33 workshop on high–frequency phase calibration techniques – EuMW
    Munich, Germany
    Frans Verbeyst organized the workshop with contributions from leading National Metrology Institutes like NIST, PTB and NPL and universities like VUB (ELEC).
    The workshop was organized and chaired by IEEE T&M TC-33 and sponsored by TARGET and IEEE.
    Marc Vanden Bossche is technical chair of IEEE T&M TC-33.
    Phase Calibration, an Overview from a Large-Signal Network Analysis Point of View.
    Frans Verbeyst
    First, it is explained why (accurate) phase is important and what Large-Signal Network Analysis is all about. Next, the calibration process of a Large-Signal Network Analyzer is explained with a focus on phase calibration. Phase calibration of a Large-Signal Network Analyzer requires a calibrated Harmonic Phase Reference. This, in its turn, requires an ideal sampling oscilloscope. Because "real" sampling oscilloscopes suffer from both time base and vertical errors, each of them either need to be measured, estimated and compensated or must be avoided. Also, one must properly deal with the effect of adapters and mismatches.
    The characterization of the dynamics of the sampling scope (non-ideal amplitude and phase characteristic) is based on either the nose-to-nose or EOS-based calibration procedure. Both are explained shortly. Next, the former is explained in more detail, while the latter will be explained during the other presentations. Two applications of a nose-to-nose calibrated sampling oscilloscope are explained, one of them being the HPR calibration, the other being the characterization of an opto-electric component. It is explained that EOS-based calibration of a sampling oscilloscope is the "inverse" of the second application. For each application, the equivalent model is shown. Discrepancies found between EOS-based and nose-to-nose based sample scope calibration are highlighted. Finally it is explained that time base related errors must be dealt with, independent of the choice of EOS or nose-to-nose.
    Presentation: (pdf - 1MB)
  • September 2007 - RFMTC
    Gävle, Sweden
    Extending vector network analyzers for the nonlinear characterization of diodes, transistors and amplifiers in frequency and time domain.
    Frans Verbeyst
    After explaining the capibilities of existing characterization techniques, this workshop gives a short introduction to Large-Signal Network Analysis theory.
    Turning the theory into practice, it is explained how vector network analyzers can be extended to characterize the harmonic nonlinear behavior of components, even under non-50 Ohm circumstances.
    This measurement capability results into different new applications. Some of them will be discussed briefly. To conclude the symbiose between large-signal network analyzers and new type of tuners will be illustrated.
    Presentation: (pdf - 4.3MB)
  • May 2007 - IMTC
    Warsaw, Poland
    Enhanced Time Base Jitter Compensation of Sine Waves.
    Frans Verbeyst (NMDG/VUB), Yves Rolain (VUB), Rik Pintelon (VUB), Johan Schoukens (VUB)
    The goal of this paper is to estimate the amplitude of a sine wave in the presence of time base jitter, time base drift, time base distortion and additive noise. This work is motivated by a comparative study of the amplitude distortion estimated using a nose-to-nose and electro-optic sampling based calibration of a highfrequency sampling oscilloscope. It uses the exact expression of the variance of a sine wave in the presence of normally distributed additive and jitter noise, instead of a Taylor approximation of this expression.
    Article: (pdf - 400kB) – Presentation: (ppt - 1MB)
  • May 2007 - IMTC
    Warsaw, Poland
    System Identification Approach Applied to Drift Estimation.
    Frans Verbeyst (NMDG/VUB), Rik Pintelon (VUB), Yves Rolain (VUB), Johan Schoukens (VUB), Tracy S. Clement (NIST)
    A system identification approach is applied to estimate the time base drift introduced by a high-frequency sampling oscilloscope. First, a new least squares estimator is proposed to estimate the delay of a set of repeated measurements in the presence of additive and jitter noise. Next, the effect of both additive and jitter noise is studied in the frequency domain using simulations. Special attention is devoted to the covariance matrix of the experiments, which is used to construct a weighted least squares estimator that minimizes the uncertainty of the estimated delays. Comparative results with respect to other state-of-the-art methods are shown. Finally, the enhanced method is applied to estimate the drift observed in repeated impulse response measurements of an optoelectrical converter using an Agilent 83480A sampling oscilloscope in combination with a 83484A 50 GHz electrical plug-in.
    Article: (pdf - 700kB) – Presentation: (ppt - 1.5MB)
  • September 2006 - PhD dissertation (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
    Brussels, Belgium
    Contributions to Large-Signal Network Analysis.
    Frans Verbeyst
    This PhD contains contributions to Large-Signal Network Analysis at the level of raw LSNA measurements, accurate phase, Volterra-based behavioural modelling and both measurements and modelling under mismatch conditions.
    (pdf - 5.6 MB)
  • April 2006 - IMTC
    Sorrento, Italy
    System Identification Approach Applied to Jitter Estimation.
    Frans Verbeyst (NMDG/VUB), Yves Rolain (VUB), Johan Schoukens (VUB), Rik Pintelon (VUB)
    A system identification approach is applied to estimate the jitter introduced by a high-frequency sampling oscilloscope. An extended model is proposed to describe the sample variance of a set of repeated (impulse response) measurements in the presence of additive and jitter noise. Then, the (weighted) least-squares and maximum likelihood estimator are introduced to estimate the standard deviation of this additive and jitter noise.
    First, results are shown based on simulations. These allow to test both the correctness of the implementations, to verify the ability to detect model errors and to study the effect of uncertainties on the input signal.
    Next, the jitter and additive noise standard deviation are estimated on real measurements by performing impulse response measurements using an Agilent 83480A sampling oscilloscope in combination with 83484A 50 GHz electrical plug-ins.
    Additional challenges, such as the conjugated effect of time base drift and time base distortion, are described and correctly taken care of, demonstrating the real power of a solid stochastical framework.
    Article: (pdf - 1.4MB) – Presentation: (pdf - 1.5MB)
    Award: Honorable mention recognized by the Award Commission of Agilent Technologies
  • June 2005 - EEEfCOM
    Ulm, Germany
    A Network Analyzer for Active Components.
    M. Vanden Bossche (NMDG), R. Tuijtelaars (BSW)
    This presentation demonstrates how an active component can be characterized from small - signal behavior (s-parameters) to large-signal behavior with one connection. The component is analyzed with a one tone and modulation signals in a 50 Ohm environment and non-50 Ohm environment..
    (pdf - 3 MB)

NMDG Contributions to NVNA Users' Forum

  • June 2010 - ARFTG
    IMS - Anaheim, USA
    Switching amplifiers and Large-Signal Deembedding.
    Guillaume Pailloncy
    This presentation demonstrates how the R&S/NMDG ZVxPlus simplifies the design of amplifiers. Using large-signal deembedding to bring measurement reference planes close to the intrinsic nonlinearities, one can indeed optimize an amplifier in different classes of operation using directly the theoretical design techniques available in textbooks.
    (pdf - 748 KB)
  • June 2009 - ARFTG
    IMS - Boston, USA
    Technology update: Pulse and modulation capabilities with the ZVxPlus.
    Marc Vanden Bossche
    This presentation demonstrates how active components, being in a nonlinear mode of operation, can be properly characterized with the ZVxPlus under pulse and modulation conditions.
    (pdf - 1.6 MB)
  • June 2006 - ARFTG
    IMS - San Francisco, USA
    Metrology @ NMDG.
    Frans Verbeyst
    A short overview is given of the metrology applied at NMDG with respect to phase calibration of large-signal network analyzers.
    (pdf - 0.8 MB)
  • June 2006 - ARFTG
    IMS - San Francisco, USA
    Avoiding common pitfalls when going beyond S-parameters.
    Frans Verbeyst
    Lesson #1: Nonlinear behaviour shows up in S-parameter measurements as "deterministic noise".
    Lesson #2: b2(f) / a1(f) = S21(f) if and only if a2(f) = 0
    (pdf - 0.4 MB)
  • October 2004 - EUMC
    Rai, Amsterdam
    Real-time PA characterization and behavioral modeling "based on LSNA technology".
    F. Verbeyst
    Combination of Real-Time PA Analysis and Behavioral Modeling.
    (pps - 0.7 MB)
  • June 2004 - ARFTG
    IMS – Forth Worth, Texas
    An improved Harmonic Phase Reference for LSNA capabilities up to 50 GHz.
    M. Vanden Bossche
    Some results are shown to the NVNA community of the phase calibration efforts up to 50 GHz going on at NMDG in support of the MTT463 product.
    (pdf - 6.3 MB)
  • June 12th 2003 - ARFTG
    IMS - Philadelphia
    Calibration methods for LSNA-based load-pull measurements .
    M. Vanden Bossche
    It is demonstrated how the ATS tuners and software from Maury Microwave work together with a large-signal network analyzer and how the combination gives unprecedented amount of information what is going on at the device level.
    (pdf - 0.7 MB)
  • December 4, 2002 - ARFTG
    Monarch Hotel, Washington, D.C.
    1st ARFTG NVNA Users’ Forum.
    NMDG Engineering in Sp(ac)e
    The situation, mission and vision explained.
    Highlight on a specific topic: NARROW-BAND and BROAD-BAND Modulation


NMDG Contributions to IMS MicroApps

  • June 2010
    IMS - Anaheim, USA
    S-functions, the "S-parameters" for nonlinear devices.
    Guillaume Pailloncy
    This article describes the NMDG "Sfunctions" measurement-based behavioral model. When imported in simulators, S-functions, the "Sparameters" for nonlinear components, allow to accurately predict both harmonic and modulation behavior of cascaded components.
    Article (pdf - 83 KB)
    Presentation (pdf - 506 KB)
  • June 2009
    IMS - Boston, USA
    Fast component characterization using modern network analysis techniques.
    Guillaume Pailloncy
    Presently source- and load-pull techniques are used to find the optimal source and load matching circuitry of active components. While the present tuning process is cumbersome, this paper presents fast analysis techniques, based on large-signal network analyzer, that overcome the drawbacks of the existing state of the art solutions.
    (pdf - 2.6 MB)